Title : Different mixtures based on birds in the treatment of epilepsy and high blood pressure in the markets of adjame and attecoube, Abidjan cote d’ivoire
Context: For decades, despite the development of modern medicine, African populations are suffering from several silent illnesses including high blood pressure and epilepsy. In the quest for lasting treatment, naturotherapists very often use plants. Thus, little information relates to the use of wildlife in general and mainly that of birds in the treatment of these two pathologies. Hence the following questions:
(1) Can the treatment of these two pathologies require the use of avifauna organs?
(2) If yes, then what are these bird species? The answer to these questions motivated this study, in the district of Abidjan, Côte d’ivoire.
Methodology: Data collection was carried out from May 14 to June 6, 2022 through semi-structured interviews with 130 bird organ sellers and traditional healers in the communes of Adjamé and Attécoubé, in Abidjan. These municipalities are home to a high number of traditional healers and sellers of animal organs. Sampling was intentional, non-random. The individual interview was used At the start of each interview, the objectives of the study were explained to the interviewee and their free consent was obtained verbally. These interviews were conducted in French and translated into the Malinké language. During the interview, the images of the birds contained in the identification guide were presented with a view to identifying the species used. The Citation Frequency of each species was calculated. Several diseases and other pathologies were mentioned, however, only the responses relating to these 2 pathologies were taken into account in the data processing, and a list of the species involved was developed.
Results:In total, 23 people out of 130 interviewed use bird organs for the treatment of high blood pressure and epilepsy. Thus, the treatment of epilepsy requires 12 species of birds, two of which are migratory (Pelecanus onocrotalusLinnaeus, 1758 and Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758). Four of these species in danger of extinction (EN) and two in critical danger (CR) according to the Redlist. The most cited species are Torgostracheliotos (Forster, JR, 1796) (FC = 6.87) and Platalea leucorodia Linné, 1758 (FC = 2.67).
As for high blood pressure, its treatment uses seven species of birds, including three migratory ones (Calidris minutilla(Vieillot, 1819), Ciconia ciconia (Linnaeus, 1758) and Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758).The most cited species areLatham francolin Peliperdix lathami (Hartlaub, 1854) (FC = 3.44) and Lophoceros fasciatus (Shaw, 1812) (FC = 2.67). Furthermore, all of these birds mentioned are used in various ways in the treatment of these two pathologies. However, apart from the whole bird, the head is the part most used by naturotherapists. These birds are combined with other plants either in powder or in soup intended for consumption by patients.
Conclusion: Very few naturotherapists treat epilepsy and high blood pressure with a mixture of plants and avifaunal organs. The treatment of the both pathologies requires the use of 19 different species of birds. All these species are used in different formulations. These results will help promote the African pharmacopoeia. However, it still remains necessary to isolate the active materials from the organs of these birds with a view to an elaborate and replicable preparation. Furthermore, this work raises the problem of conservation of avian species, especially since the treatments for these pathologies require the entire use of certain species with a worrying status.