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5th Edition of International Conference on

Traditional Medicine, Ethnomedicine and Natural Therapies

May 22-23, 2023 | Tokyo, Japan

Traditional Medicine 2022

Akarat Sivaphongthongchai

Speaker at Traditional Medicine, Ethnomedicine and Natural Therapies 2022 - Akarat Sivaphongthongchai
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Title : Effects of d Borneol and d Camphor inhalations on Emotional States and Brain Wave Activities in Healthy Participants


Introduction: d-Borneol and d-camphor are common volatile compounds widely used in traditional remedies because they can stimulate sense of smell and emotional center of human brain. d-Borneol  (C10H18O) obtained from the tropical plants known as Dryobalanops aromatica (D. aromatica) is a highly lipid-soluble bicyclic monoterpene alcohol while d-camphor (C10H16O) obtained from the tropical plants called Cinnamomun camphora is a white, crystalline substance. d-Camphor is bicyclic monoterpene ketone. d-Borneol is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine to treat analgesia, anesthesia, anxiety, depression and in traditional Thai medicine known as Phimsen as a tonic for heart and brain. In addition, d-camphor is used as antiemetic, antidiarrheal and stimulant agent in Ayurvedic medicine. In Thailand, it is an important ingredient in nasal inhaler (Ya-Dom) to treat nasal congestion. There are several previous studies on the effects and therapeutic properties of d-borneol and d-camphor. However, the studies on the effects of d-borneol and d-camphor inhalation on psychophysiological changes are limited and inconsistent.

Research Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of d-borneol and d-camphor inhalation on psychological parameters through emotional states and central nervous system (CNS) through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in healthy participants.  The study design was a pretest-posttest design. Twenty-one participants and 24 participants were recruited into d-borneol and d-camphor groups respectively.

Methods: The EEG recordings were conducted based on 10-20 systems and a set of scales by the Geneva Emotion and the Odor Scale was used to evaluate the emotional states.  For data analysis, d-borneol and d-camphor were inhaled and compared with sweet almond oil as base oil. Paired t-test was employed to measure the oil inhalation.

Results: The findings indicated that general characteristics of the participants in each intervention were similar. The d-borneol inhalation could induce positive effects on  psychological parameters of emotional states by increasing the mean scores of good, active, fresh, romantic feelings significantly (p-value=0.032), (p-value<0.001), (p-value<0.001), (p-value<0.001) respectively while decreasing the mean scores of bad, stressed, frustrated, annoyed, disgusted feelings significantly (p-value<0.001),(p-value<0.001), (p-value<0.001), (p-value=0.028), (p-value=0.036) respectively and the EEG parameters by increasing the power of the beta wave in left and right posterior brain areas increased significantly (p-value=0.008), (p-value=0.003), respectively. The d-camphor inhalation caused significant changes in the emotional states and the parameters. After d-camphor inhalation, relaxed, calm feelings increased significantly (p-value<0.001) (p-value=0.008), respectively. while active, stressed feelings decreased significantly (p-value=0.019), (p-value<0.001), respectively. The power of the alpha wave over all brain areas including left anterior, right anterior, center, left posterior and right posterior brain areas increased significantly (p-value=0.004), (p-value=0.013), (p-value=0.010), (p-value=0.036), (p-value=0.042) respectively. Beta waves are related to an alert state of mind while alpha waves are associated with mental coordination, calmness and brain consciousness.

Conclusion: d-Borneol seems to possess stimulating effects while d-camphor seems to possess sedative effects on psychophysiological parameters in healthy participants.


Akarat Sivaphongthongchai is a PhD candidate at College of Public Health Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand. He graduated with the Master’s Degree in Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University.

He conducted Master’s thesis on Wall inscription on herbal medicine and hermit exercise at Sala Ruesee Wat Matchimawas Worawihan, Songkhala Province, Thailand