Argania spinosa (L.) is an endemic tree protected by UNESCO which is mainly growing on semi-arid and arid lands of Morocco(UNESCO, 2017). It plays an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. The oil obtained from kernels, is famous worldwide for its nutritional cosmetic and medicinal benefits. It has been used in traditional medicine for several centuries (Lybbert et al. 2011) (Charrouf et al., 2002). That's why scientists and private sector are particularly interest to this natural bioressource as a functional food rich with a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites such as fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, polyphenols and saponins (Charrouf et al. 2011).
Generally, this oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (80%), principally oleic, and linoleic acids 44.8 and 33.7%, respectively. Interestingly, the unsaponifiable fraction,1% of the oil constituents of argan oil, is mainly rich in antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols. Also, it is rich in some sterols such as schottenol (1420 mg/kg) and spinasterol (1150 mg/kg) (Ouchbani et al.2020). These two families of sterols, known for their anticancer properties, are rarely encountered in other vegetable oils (Khallouki et al., 2003).
The argan oil production generates different by-products: pulp, shell and press cake with functionalities that are not yet investigated (Makbal et al.2021). Aware of the importance of Valorization of bioresources for the creation of new income activities must imperatively include the valorization of waste and residuals, some initiatives such as SATREPS project, which is a Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research which provides a cooperation opportunity between Tsukuba University, Kyushu University JICA and Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary medicine (IAV Hassan II) of Morocco, to improve the valorization of argan oil and argan by-products and to strengthen of collaboration between academics, universities and private sectors for a better use of this biorossource to create new industires.